Blood Pressure Norms: Understand The Complete Range

blood pressure norms

Normal blood pressure is essential for consistent blood flow from the heart to the entire body tissues and organs. Blood is flown with every heartbeat when it forces blood to reach the rest of the body. However, when the body does not have normal blood pressure, no nutrients or oxygen are delivered to body tissues through arteries.

However, blood pressure can get drastically high or low, which can lead to numerous heart and body diseases. Yet, it is reported that every one out of three adults encounters high blood pressure in the United States and a lot of them aren’t aware of it. That is the reason, high blood pressure is said to be a silent killer. Yet, it could be substantially dangerous to human life that could lead to stroke or heart attack.

Therefore, it is essential to keep track of blood pressure norms and often take readings to avoid diseases like hypertension.

In this article, you’ll get to know everything about normal blood pressure in humans that varies with respect to age, gender, and human body structure.

What is Blood Pressure?

People usually denote blood pressure as BP, which is the force that flows blood all across the body’s organs through blood vessels and the circulatory system. Blood pressure is the most significant force that delivers nutrients and oxygen through arteries and helps body organs and tissues to remain nourished even without blood.

In addition, blood pressure norms are crucial because it also conveys white blood cells and antibodies to hormones and the immune system in the body, for instance, insulin.

The heart pumps fresh blood to the human body that is equally vital as nutrients and oxygen. This fresh blood helps in extracting toxic wastes through the respiratory and digestive systems. For instance, carbon dioxide is eliminated with each exhale, and other toxins are cleared through the liver and kidneys.

Moreover, blood brings plenty of other properties including defenses against tissue damage, platelets, temperature, etc.

What is the Blood Pressure Normal Reading?

Blood pressure is measured in two numbers: systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The first number is systolic which reads the blood pressure within arteries upon every heartbeat. Another one is diastolic, which measures the blood pressure within arteries between the beats of the heart.

However, according to the American Heart Association, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure normal reading should be 120/80 mmHg. Yet, the blood pressure norms could change due to several reasons. The AHA has suggested that the person with high blood pressure and readings of 140/80 should seek treatment before it increases further,

Thus, AHA has divided high blood pressure into categories according to the ranges:

  • Elevated Blood Pressure: Ranges from 120-129 mmHg systolic, yet less than 80 mmHg diastolic.
  • Hypertension Stage I: Ranges from 130-139 mmHg systolic and 80-89 mmHg diastolic
Blood Pressure CategoriesSystolicDiastolic
Normal<120 mmHg<80 mmHg
Elevated120-129 mmHg<80 mmHg
Hypertension Stage I130-139 mmHg80-89 mmHg
Hypertension Stage II≥140 mmHg≥90 mmHg

The hypertension stage II is considered a hypertensive crisis that could lead to high risks of stroke, cardiac arrest, and other serious health diseases.

According to AHA, if the person has experienced cardiac arrest before, the doctors must prescribe some medication to reduce further risk factors for chronic kidney disease or diabetes. Yet, early treatment can bring a substantial positive impact on life.

How Blood Pressure Norms Function in the Body?

Blood has circulation and arteries are vessels, just like in a massively complicated pipeline system. Blood circulation is caused by a fundamental physical fact that also holds true in a garden water hose. A pressure difference causes blood to circulate through the body.

The beginning of the journey of the blood pressure from the heart, when it reaches the arteries, is when it is highest, and the end of the journey, along gradually smaller roots of arteries, is when it is lowest. The differential in pressure is what causes the blood to circulate.

Similarly, to how the physical characteristics of a garden pipeline affect water pressure, arteries have an impact on blood pressure. At the point of compression, pressure develops when the pipe is constrained.

For instance, if the artery walls weren’t elastic, the blood pressure would decrease more promptly as it is released from the heart. The characteristics of arteries are just as essential for regulating blood pressure and allowing blood flow across the body, even though the heart generates the majority of it.

Normal blood pressure and blood flow are influenced by artery health, and shrinking of the arteries can finally completely cut off the blood supply, resulting in hazardous diseases including cardiac arrest and stroke.

How to Measure Blood Pressure?

Since blood pressure changes throughout the day, it is crucial to take measures for it multiple times. It may also fluctuate as a result of factors like physical strain, stress, discomfort, or extreme weather conditions. However, this type of elevation in blood pressure is just transient, and it quickly recovers to blood pressure norms.

In other words, just because blood pressure is elevated at one point doesn’t certainly mean that it will always be high. A blood pressure reading obtained at a clinic may potentially be inaccurate since some people become so anxious when they visit the doctor.

Therefore, in order to obtain accurate data, blood pressure readings should be taken on multiple various days, especially while you are relaxing. It means that you should be sitting and relaxing on a chair and waiting for the circulatory system to settle for almost three to five minutes before acquiring a blood pressure normal reading. Make sure to keep your arm resting on the table that is being used for the measurement

However, you can measure your blood pressure using a digital blood pressure machine or take manual readings as well.

Factors that Affect Blood Pressure Norms

There could be nine possible and most common risk factors that could affect blood pressure norms and lead to elevated blood pressure or hypertension

1. Stress

Higher stress levels can be one of the main causes of high blood pressure. However, while trying to relax, if you increase smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug intake, you can only make your blood pressure issues worse. Effective blood pressure-lowering methods include meditation and relaxation approaches.

2. Alcohol Consumption

Drinking more than two drinks per day can result in hypertension, likely as a result of your receptive nerve system is activated, which narrows your blood vessels and increases your blood pressure and heart rate flow at the same time.

3. Obesity

The weightier you are, the more blood circulation you require to deliver nutrients and oxygen to the body’s organs. Yet, the pressure inside your blood vessels increases when more blood is flown through them and it ultimately raises blood pressure.

4. Physically Inactive

Exercise improves blood circulation through all of the body vessels, which triggers the production of cytokines and natural hormones that calm blood vessels and lower blood pressure. Thus, when you don’t exercise regularly or remain physically inactive, you’re more likely to become overweight and eventually experience high blood pressure.

5. High Sodium Consumption

Your body may store fluid as a result of consuming too much salt, which also leads to the narrowing of the arteries. Blood pressure is raised by both circumstances.

6. Lack of Potassium

When sodium levels in your tissues are out of balance, potassium helps. Potassium reduces blood pressure by relaxing the smooth muscle cells in your arteries. Unfortunately, if your body has potassium deficiency, it fails to filter excessive sodium out of your body.

7. Intake of NSAIDs

Some anti-inflammatory medications such as Ibuprofen can significantly exacerbate pre-existing hypertension or lead to the emergence of chronic high blood pressure. Additionally, it can harm the kidneys and aggravate heart failure, as well as result in cardiac arrest and strokes. Ibuprofen is a medication of the group of medications known as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), along with naproxen, indomethacin, Mobic, Iodine, and celecoxib.

8. Deficiency of Vitamin D

It is not clear whether eating a diet that is low in vitamin D can cause high blood pressure. But according to researchers, vitamin D may have an impact on a kidney-produced enzyme that controls blood pressure. To pinpoint vitamin D’s precise effect in high blood pressure, more research is required. Yet, you should ask your doctor if taking vitamin D supplements may be beneficial for you.

9. Several Chronic Diseases

Your risk factors of high blood pressure could also be increased by a number of chronic illnesses, such as diabetes, renal disease, or sleep disorders.

5 Tips to Maintain Normal Blood Pressure

If you often experience high blood pressure due to any of the above reasons or other, you should bring some changes to your lifestyle in order to maintain blood pressure norms. However, if you want to treat blood pressure using some medications, then keep in mind that it cannot be treated for a lifetime, but you can control it by adopting some lifestyle habits.

A few lifestyle-changing tips are mentioned below to help you sustain normal blood pressure.

i. Healthy Diet Intake

First and foremost, consume a diet low in fat and cholesterol and rich in whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. However, low-fat dairy products can also help reduce high blood pressure by up to 11 mm Hg.

Another way to reduce sodium’s effects on blood pressure is dietary potassium. Instead of consuming supplements, eat fruits and vegetables that are better providers of potassium. Make an objective to consume at least 3,500 to 5,000 mg per day, which may result in a 4–5 mm Hg reduction in blood pressure. For a better potassium consumption guide, consult your doctor.

ii. Reduce Sodium Intake

Another crucial thing to do is to reduce the sodium amount which could be one of the biggest reasons for high blood pressure. When you begin consuming food that is low in sodium (salt), it helps in normalizing blood pressure and improves heart health. Diminishing sodium consumption to reduce blood pressure by up to 5-6 mmHg.

Nonetheless, the impact of sodium intake varies from person to person. Usually, it is advised to consume 2300 mg sodium per day, which is equal to fill of one tablespoon. Yet, children below 11 years should intake less sodium.

Did you know?

Approximately 90% of US people consume a lot of sodium. Children of 2 years and above intake more than 3400 mg, which is the substantial reason for high blood pressure amongst Americans.

In order to reduce sodium amount in your diet, you should follow the steps mentioned below:

  • Add herbs and spices in your food instead of salt
  • Get low-sodium foods and beverages
  • Cook your food to control the existing amount of salt in food
  • Try to avoid eating processed food because they contain a high amount of sodium

iii. Exercise Regularly

Physical exercise regularly can also aid in reducing high blood pressure by up to 5-8 mm Hg, Thus, it is essential to exercise regularly in order to prevent your blood pressure from elevating. Generally, it is advised to do mild exercise for at least half an hour every day.

In addition, exercise can help prevent elevated blood pressure from turning into hypertension. So, if you’re a hypertension patient, exercising regularly can help sustain blood pressure norms.

iv. Quit Smoking and Limit Alcohol

Smoking is another one of the main roots of high blood pressure. However, quitting smoking is the way to cut off lots of cardiac, lung, and kidney diseases. It can also reduce cardiac arrest risk and enhance overall heart health.

Similarly, alcohol is considered hazardous to human health, especially heart and liver diseases. According to the recommendations of Dietary Guidelines for Americans, adults should consume only one drink or less for women and two drinks or less for men per day to avoid high blood pressure and various diseases.

It is found that drinking too much alcohol can increase blood pressure and can at a point diminishes the effectiveness of blood pressure medicines.

v. Lose Some Pounds

Weight gain frequently leads to elevated blood pressure. In addition to high blood pressure, being overweight can lead to sleep disruption, which impairs respiration while you’re asleep.

One of the best ways of life improvements for lowering blood pressure is weight reduction. Even a minor weight loss can help lower blood pressure if you are obese or overweight. For  instance, each kilogram (2.2 pounds) of weight dropped may result in a reduction in blood pressure of roughly 1 mm Hg.

Your waist size is also crucial. High blood pressure can be increased by bearing excessive weight around the waistline.

Final Words

Blood Pressure is one of the crucial factors of the human body that can become high or low with time due to several reasons. Notwithstanding, if your blood pressure norms are balanced, you do not require any medication. But in order to maintain normal blood pressure, you should adopt a healthy lifestyle and prevent hypertension from developing. Unfortunately, if anyone in your family suffers from hypertension, you need to be more cautious and take precautions.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. Does gender affect blood pressure?

    According to recent studies, blood pressure readings vary in males and females. It is shown that blood pressure in men is higher than in women of the same age. Yet, after menopause, it may increase to a great extent, even higher than in men.

  2. How does age affect blood pressure?

    Age is one of the factors that affect blood pressure norms. Since your body is a whole network of vessels that are known as the vascular system. And, as you get older, these arteries get firmer and the blood pressure increases.

  3. Can drinking lots of water maintain blood pressure?

    If you keep yourself hydrated throughout the day and intake 6-8 glasses of water, it can help improve blood pressure. However, make sure to consume water instead of any other liquid.


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